Event-Triggered and Self-Triggered Control

Resource-aware control

In many control applications, controllers are nowadays implemented using digital communication networks in which the control task has to share the communication resources with other tasks. Despite the fact that communication but also computational resources can be scarce, controllers are typically still implemented in a time-triggered fashion, in which control tasks are executed periodically. This design choice often leads to over-utilization of the available communication resources, and/or causes a limited lifetime of battery-powered devices, as it might not be necessary to execute the control task every period to guarantee desired closed-loop performance.

In case the system is close to its desired setpoint and no disturbances are acting on the system, there is no need to transmit sensor or controller information to controllers and actuators, respectively. This would just be a waste of valuable system's resources. To mitigate this waste or resources, we have to bring "feedback" into the sampling and communication process of the system (in contrast with classical time-triggered sampled-data control in which the sampling is done in "open loop" without considering the actual status of the system). As a consequence, we move from classical periodic control, to aperiodic control, which is considered to be more effective in balancing control performance ("quality-of-control") versus utilization of resources.

Two control schemes that abandon the periodic control paradigm are event-triggered and self-triggered control. Event-triggered control is reactive and generates sensor sampling and control actuation when, for instance, the plant state deviates more than a certain threshold from a desired value. Self-triggered control, on the other hand, is proactive and computes the next sampling or actuation instance ahead of time. The analysis and design of these innovative and resource-aware control schemes require new methodologies and a new system theory. In fact, it is envisioned that hybrid systems theory can play an important role in the understanding of these control schemes.

Related Publications

2018

  • Robust Event-triggered MPC With Guaranteed Asymptotic Bound and Average Sampling Rate

    2018
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

  • Riccati-Based Design of Event-Triggered Controllers for Linear Systems with Delays

    2018
    D.P. Borgers, V.S. Dolk, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

  • Event-driven control with deadline optimization for linear systems with stochastic delays

    2018
    E.P. van Horssen, S. Prakash, D.A. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems

  • Output-based Event-triggered Control with Performance Guarantees

    February, 2018
    B. Asadi Khashooei, D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

  • Co-design of output feedback laws and event-triggering conditions for the L2-stabilization of linear systems

    2018
    M. Abdelrahim, R. Postoyan, J. Daafouz, D. Nesic, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Automatica

2017

  • Resource-aware MPC for constrained linear systems: Two rollout approaches

    2017
    T.M.P. Gommans, D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Journal of Process Control 51, p. 68–83

  • Event-triggered Control Systems under Denial-of-Service Attacks

    2017
    V.S. Dolk, P. Tesi, C. De Persis, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems "(Full papers for Special Issue on Secure Control of Cyber Physical Systems)" 4(1), p. 93 - 105

  • Stability and Performance Analysis of Spatially Invariant Systems with Networked Communication

    October, 2017
    S.H.J. Heijmans, D.P. Borgers, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

  • Output-based and Decentralized Dynamic Event-triggered Control with Guaranteed Lp-gain Performance and Zeno-freeness

    January, 2017
    V.S. Dolk, D.P. Borgers, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 62(1), p. 34-49

  • Event-triggered Control for String-Stable Vehicle Platooning

    2017
    V.S. Dolk, J. Ploeg, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems

  • Event-triggered Control under Packet Losses

    June, 2017
    V.S. Dolk, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Automatica 80, p. 143–155

  • V.S. Dolk, D.P. Borgers, J.R. van der Velden, J.L.C. Verhaegh, J. Ploeg, W.P.M.H. Heemels

    March, 2017
    Resource-aware Cooperative Driving
    Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC) 2017, Pittsburgh, USA

  • L2-gain Analysis of Periodic Event-triggered Systems with Varying Delays using Lifting Techniques

    2017
    N.W.A. Strijbosch, G.E. Dullerud, A.R. Teel, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2017, Melbourne, Australia

  • Suboptimal Event-triggered Control over Unreliable Communication Links with Experimental Validation

    May, 2017
    B. Asadi Khashooei, B. van Eekelen, D. J. Antunes and W. P. M. H. Heemels
    3rd International Conference on Event-based Control, Communication and Signal Processing 2017, Madeira, Portugal

  • Self-triggered and event-driven control for linear systems with stochastic delays

    2017
    S. Prakash, E.P. van Horssen, D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    American Control Conference 2017, Seattle (WA), USA.

  • Dynamic Periodic Event-Triggered Control for Linear Systems

    2017
    D.P. Borgers, V.S. Dolk and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC) 2017, Pittsburgh, USA

  • Event-triggered Consensus Seeking under Non-uniform Time-Varying Delays

    2017
    V.S. Dolk, M. Abdelrahim, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IFAC World Congress 2017, Toulouse, France

  • Design of periodic event-triggered control for polynomial systems: A delay system approach

    2017
    E. Aranda Escolástico*, M. Abdelrahim, M. Guinaldo, S. Dormido, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IFAC World Congress 2017, Toulouse, France

2016

  • Robust Self-Triggered MPC for Constrained Linear Systems: A Tube-Based Approach

    2016
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    Automatica 72, p. 73-83

  • L2-gain Analysis for a Class of Hybrid Systems with Applications to Reset and Event-triggered Control: A Lifting Approach

    October, 2016
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, G.E. Dullerud, A.R. Teel
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 61(10), p. 2766-2781

  • gamma-Invasive Event-Triggered and Self-Triggered Control for Perturbed Linear Systems (Invited paper)

    2016
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2016, p. 1346-1351

  • Dynamic event-triggered control with time regularization for linear systems (Invited paper)

    2016
    D.P. Borgers, V.S. Dolk, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2016, p. 1352-1357

  • Input-to-state stabilizing event-triggered control for linear systems with output quantisation (Invited paper)

    2016
    M.M.O. Abdelrahim, V.S. Dolk, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2016, p. 483-488

  • Constructions of Lyapunov Functions for Large-scale Networked Control Systems with Packet-based Communication (Invited Paper)

    2016
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, D.P. Borgers, V.S. Dolk, R. Geiselhart, S.H.J. Heijmans
    European Control Conference (ECC) 2016, Aalborg, DK, p. 936-938

  • Stabilization of nonlinear systems using state-feedback periodic event-triggered controllers

    2016
    Wei Wang, R. Postoyan, D. Nesic, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2016, p. 6808-6813

  • Dynamic Thresholds in Robust Event-Triggered Control for Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    2016
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    European Control Conference (ECC) 2016, Aalborg, DK, p. 983-988

  • Stability Analysis of Spatially Invariant Systems with Event-Triggered Communication

    2016
    S.H.J. Heijmans, V.S. Dolk, D.P. Borgers, W.P.H. Heemels
    Conference on Event-Based Control, Communication and Signal Processing (EBCCSP) 2016

  • Numerical Evaluation of a Robust Self-Triggered MPC Algorithm

    2016
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    6th IFAC Workshop on Distributed Estimation and Control in Networked Systems (NECSYS) 2016, Tokio, Japan

  • Experimental validation of an event-triggered policy for remote sensing and control with performance guarantees

    2016
    B. Van Eekelen, N.S. Rao, B. Asadi Khashooei, D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Conference on Event-Based Control, Communication and Signal Processing (EBCCSP) 2016

2015

  • Resource-aware MPC for Constrained Nonlinear Systems: A Self-Triggered Control Approach

    May, 2015
    T.M.P. Gommans and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Systems and Control Letters 79, p. 59-67

  • A lifting approach to L2-gain analysis of periodic event-triggered and switching sampled-data control systems (invited paper)

    2015
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, G.E. Dullerud, A.R. Teel
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2015, Osaka, Japan, p. 4176 - 4182

  • Communication Scheduling in Robust Self-Triggered MPC for Linear Discrete-Time Systems

    2015
    F.B. Brunner, T.M.P. Gommans, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    IFAC Workshop on Distributed Estimation and Control in Networked Systems (NECSYS) 2015, Philadelphia, USA "(IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 48, Issue 22, 2015, Pages 132-137)", p. 132-137

  • Rollout Strategies for Output-Based Event-Triggered Control

    2015
    B. Asadi Khashooei, D. J. Antunes and W. P. M. H. Heemels
    European Control Conference (ECC), 2015, Linz, Austria, p. 2168-2173

  • Robust Event-Triggered MPC for Constrained Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Guaranteed Average Sampling Rate

    2015
    F.D. Brunner, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    IFAC Conference on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) 2015, Seville, Spain "(IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 48, Issue 23, 2015, Pages 117-122)", p. 117-122

  • Dynamic event-triggered control under packet losses: The case with acknowledgements

    2015
    Dolk, V.S. and Heemels, W.P.M.H.
    International Conference on Event-based Control, Communication, and Signal Processing (EBCCSP), p. 1-7

  • Robust Self-Triggered Model Predictive Control for Constrained Discrete-Time LTI Systems based on Homothetic Tubes

    2015
    E. Aydiner, F.D. Brunner, W P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    European Control Conference (ECC), 2015, Linz, Austria, p. 1587-1593

  • Resource-aware set-valued estimation for discrete-time linear systems (invited paper)

    2015
    F.D. Brunner, T.M.P. Gommans, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F. Allgower
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2015, Osaka, Japan, p. 5480 - 5486

  • An event-triggered policy for remote sensing and control with performance guarantees

    2015
    B. Asadi Khashooei, D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2015, Osaka, Japan, p. 4830 - 4835

  • Event-triggered Control Systems under Denial-of-Service Attacks (invited paper)

    2015
    V.S. Dolk, P. Tesi, C. De Persis, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2015, Osaka, Japan, p. 4824 - 4829

  • Periodic Event-triggered Control

    2015
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, R. Postoyan, M.C.F. Donkers, A.R Teel, A. Anta, P. Tabuada, and D. Nesic
    in "Event-based control and signal processing, M. Miskowicz (Ed.)", CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis

  • Event-Triggered and Self-Triggered Control

    2015
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, K.H. Johansson and P. Tabuada,
    in "Encyclopedia of Systems and Control (J. Baillieul and Samad, T. - Eds.) doi: 10.1007/978-1-4471-5058-9_97", Springer, p. 384-391

  • Resource-aware control and dynamic scheduling in CPS

    2015
    W.P.M.H. Heemels
    in "Cyber-physical systems: Design, modelling and evaluation. 5th International workshop CyPHY 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ", Springer LNCS 9361, p. 1-7

2014

  • Event-Separation Properties of Event-Triggered Control Systems

    May, 2014
    D.P. Borgers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 59(10), p. 2644-2656

  • Minimum Attention Control for Linear Systems: A Linear Programming Approach

    June, 2014
    M.C.F. Donkers, P. Tabuada, and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Discrete Event Dynamic Systems Theory and Applications "Special Issue: Event-Based Control and Optimization" 24(2), p. 199-218

  • Rollout Event-Triggered Control: Beyond Periodic Control Performance

    August, 2014
    D. Antunes and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 59(12), p. 3296-3311

  • Self-Triggered Linear Quadratic Control

    2014
    T.M.P. Gommans, D. Antunes, M.C.F. Donkers, P. Tabuada, W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Automatica 50(4), p. 1279-1287

  • Dynamic Event-triggered Control: Tradeoffs Between Transmission Intervals and Performance

    December, 2014
    V.S. Dolk, D.P. Borgers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2014, Los Angeles, USA

  • Dynamic Event-triggered Control: Tradeoffs Between Transmission Intervals and Performance

    November, 2014
    V.S. Dolk, D.P. Borgers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Eindhoven University of Technology

2013

  • Periodic Event-Triggered Control for Linear Systems

    April, 2013
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, M.C.F. Donkers and A.R. Teel
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 58(4), p. 847-861

  • Model-Based Periodic Event-Triggered Control for Linear Systems

    March, 2013
    W.P.M.H. Heemels and M.C.F. Donkers
    Automatica 49(3), p. 698-711

  • On minimum inter-event times in event-triggered control

    December, 2013
    D.P. Borgers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2013, Florence, Italy, p. 7370-7375

  • Extension and Evaluation of Model-Based Periodic Event-Triggered Control

    July, 2013
    J.L.C. Verhaegh, T.M.P. Gommans and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    European Control Conference (ECC) 2013, Zurich, Switzerland, p. 1138-1144

  • Periodic event-triggered control for nonlinear systems

    December, 2013
    R. Postoyan, A. Anta, W.P.M.H. Heemels, P. Tabuada and D. Nesic
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2013, Florence, Italy, p. 7397-7402

2012

  • Output-Based Event-Triggered Control with Guaranteed L_infty and Improved and Decentralised Event-Triggering

    June, 2012
    M.C.F. Donkers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 57(6), p. 1362-1376

  • Dynamic Programming Formulation of Periodic Event-Triggered Control: Performance Guarantees and Co-Design

    December, 2012
    D. Antunes, W.P.M.H. Heemels and Paulo Tabuada
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2012, Hawaii, USA, p. 7212-7217

  • An introduction to event-triggered and self-triggered control

    December, 2012
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, K.H. Johansson, and P. Tabuada
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2012, Hawaii, USA, p. 3270-3285

  • Self-triggered MPC for constrained linear systems and quadratic costs

    August, 2012
    J.D.J. Barradas Berglind, T.M.P. Gommans and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IFAC Conference on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control 2012, p. 342-348

  • Proceedings of the 4th IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems (ADHS12). Eindhoven, The Netherlands

    June, 2012
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, B. De Schutter, and M. Lazar (Eds.)
    International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) "Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems book link"

  • Networked and Event-Triggered Control Systems

    2012
    M.C.F. Donkers
    Eindhoven University of Technology "PhD Thesis"

2011

  • On the Minimum Attention Control Problems for Linear Systems: A Linear Programming Approach

    December, 2011
    M.C.F. Donkers, P. Tabuada and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2011, Orlando, USA, p. 4717-4722

  • Periodic Event-Triggered Control Based on State Feedback

    December, 2011
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, M.C.F. Donkers and A.R. Teel
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2011, Orlando, USA, p. 2571-2576

2010

  • Output-Based Event-Triggered Control with Guaranteed L_inf-gain and Improved Event-Triggering

    December, 2010
    M.C.F. Donkers and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 2010, Atlanta, USA, p. 3246-3251

  • On Integration of Event-based Estimation and Robust MPC in a Feedback Loop

    April, 2010
    J. Sijs, M. Lazar and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC) 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, p. 31-41

  • Networked Control Systems

    2010
    A. Bemporad, W.P.M.H. Heemels and M. Johansson (Eds.)
    Springer "Lecture notes in control and information sciences book link" 406

2008

  • Analysis of event-driven controllers for linear systems

    April, 2008
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, J.H. Sandee and P.P.J. van den Bosch
    International Journal of Control 81(4), p. 571-590

2007

  • Analysis and experimental validation of a sensor-based event-driven controller

    June, 2007
    J.H. Sandee, W.P.M.H. Heemels, S.B.F. Hulsenboom and P.P.J. van den Bosch
    American Control Conference (ACC) 2007, New York, USA, p. 2867-2874

  • Analysis and experimental validation of a sensor-based event-driven controller

    2007
    J.H. Sandee, W.P.M.H. Heemels, S.B.F. Hulsenboom and P.P.J. van den Bosch
    Philips Conference on Applications of Control Technology (PACT) 2007, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

  • Case studies in event-driven control

    2007
    J.H. Sandee, W.P.M.H. Heemels and P.P.J. v.d. Bosch
    in "Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 10th International Workshop on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control 2007, Pisa, Italy", Springer, p. 762-765

2006

  • Practical stability of perturbed event-driven controlled linear systems

    June, 2006
    W.P.M.H. Heemels and J.H. Sandee
    American Control Conference (ACC) 2006, Minneapolis, USA, p. 4379-4386

  • Analysis and experimental validation of processor load for event-driven controllers

    October, 2006
    J.H. Sandee, P.M. Visser and W.P.M.H. Heemels
    International Conference on Control Applications (CCA) 2006, Munich, Germany, p. 1879-1884

  • Event-Driven Control in Theory and Practice: Tradeoffs in Software and Control Performance

    2006
    J.H. Sandee
    Eindhoven University of Technology "PhD Thesis"

2005

  • Event-driven control as an opportunity in the multidisciplinary development of embedded controllers

    June, 2005
    J.H. Sandee, W.P.M.H. Heemels and P.P.J. van den Bosch
    American Control Conference (ACC) 2005, Portland, USA, p. 1776-1781

2003

  • Control of quantized linear systems: an l1-optimal control approach

    June, 2003
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, H. Siahaan, A.L. Juloski and S. Weiland
    American Control Conference (ACC) 2003, Denver, USA, p. 3502-3507

2001

  • Asynchronous measurement and control: motor synchronization for mailing systems

    June, 2001
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, R.J.A. Gorter, P.P.J. van den Bosch and S. Weiland
    American Control Conference (ACC) 2001, Arlington, USA, p. 1708-1709

1999

  • Asynchronous measurement and control: a case study on motor synchronisation

    1999
    W.P.M.H. Heemels, R.J.A. Gorter, A. van Zijl, P.P.J. v.d. Bosch, S. Weiland, W.H.A. Hendrix and M.R. Vonder
    Control Engineering Practice 7(12), p. 1467-1482